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Child rights and child education in Andhra Pradesh

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Child rights and child education in Andhra Pradesh
Report for CARPED (Centre for Action Research and Peoples Development)
Based on research done during an AIESEC traineeship from January to August 2005
in and around Hyderabad, India
Caesar Andres
Fruthwilerstrasse 57
CH-8272 Ermatingen
Phone: +41 71 664 23 45
Mobile: +41 76 535 57 76
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Ermatingen, 11.09.2005
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Table of contents:
1   Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3
2   Visit of a primary school in Yousufguda, Hyderabad on Republic Day (26.01.2005)....... 4
3   My first trip to the villages in Kowdipally mandal in Medak district. (28.01.2005)............. 5
4   First meeting with M. Bharat Bhushan– (01.02.2005) ..................................................... 7
5   Mahita: Interview with Mr. Ramesh and Mr. Kumar (14.02.2005) ................................... 7
6   Visit at a home of a member of Asha for Education (17.02.2005) ................................. 11
7   Visit at the office of the Concern India Foundation (17.02.2005)................................... 13
8   School Education Committee (SEC) Meeting in Kowdipally (18.02.2005).................... 13
9   PRA seminar combined with visit in Battu Thanda, Kowdipally mandal (30.03.2005) ... 17
10     Evening play in Kachan Palli, Kowdipally mandal (30.03.2005) ................................ 18
11     Visit of the Zillaparishad High School (ZPHS) in Kowdipally (31.03.-01.04.2005)...... 18
12     Second meeting with M. Bharat Bhushan (03.04.2005) ............................................ 20
13     Visits of Ken World High School – (04.04.2005 and 06.04.2005) .............................. 20
14     MMCC (Master Minds Children’s Career) Talent High School (THS) (15.04.2005) ... 26
15     Lecture on Child Deprivation in AP – Speaker: M. Venkata Narayana (12.04.2005) . 29
16     School visits in Kowdipally mandal (20.04.2005)....................................................... 31
17     Visit to Kowdipally with Mr. Vidyasagar (21.04.2005)................................................ 36
18     Meeting with HCHW (Hyderabad Council of Human Welfare) (18.08.2005).............. 36
19     Conclusion and Outlook............................................................................................ 40
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1     Introduction
This report is based on research I was doing for the Indian NGO CARPED1 in the fields of
child education and child rights spread over a period of 7 months on the occasion of an
AIESEC development traineeship. The report consists - with very few exemptions - of a
chronological order of short reports about various activities done in Hyderabad or in
Kowdipally mandal2 in Medak district3. It shows examples of and opinions about the
challenges and problems dealing with the development of the children of Andhra Pradesh.
Where suitable or necessary, personal views of the author are expressed and pictures are
added if available, to give a better understanding of the situation. The report can just give a
small glimpse into the challenges in the area of child rights and child education in Andhra
Pradesh, as it is a dynamic phenomenon of high complexity with influences from many parts
of the society.
Center of Action Research and Peoples Development – more information:
a mandal is a part of a district in Andhra Pradesh which is smaller unit than the erstwhile Blocks
found all over the country
Hyderabad and the Medak district are part of the Indian state Andhra Pradesh (AP).
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2     Visit to a primary school in Yousufguda,
Hyderabad on Republic Day (26
January 2005)
It was interesting to see how the children had to celebrate one of
the national holidays in school. First of all nobody has to go to
school on national holiday in Switzerland. Secondly there is nothing
so militaristic and patriotic in our schools like what I experienced at
that school. I suppose the national anthem was sung at this event
and the procedure of flying the flag was conducted really slow and
carefully. I never noticed a Swiss flag at a school where I went to
and rarely anybody can sing only verse of the Swiss anthem
because only few people learn it at school. The girls were fully
separated from the boys and some “overseers” (most probably
teachers) had sticks in their hands to bring order among the crowd
of children.
[pictures 01-05]
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3      My first trip to the villages in Kowdipally mandal in
Medak district (28 January 2005)
On my first trip out of Hyderabad I visited together with Shanti Kumar (a CARPED employee)
and another Trainee a primary school in Somakkapet, a village with 1259 inhabitants and a
primary school in RamdasGuda (900 inhabitants). The primary school in RamdasGuda had
140 children in 5 classes. The Children (should) start going to (early) school with 3-5 years
and go to a school from the age of 5-14 (15), in primary, upper primary and high school. In
early school pencils are provided for free and for 1st to 5th class the children get the
government books free of cost. From 6th to 10th class O.C. (other castes – usually OBC =
other backward castes) have to pay for books. Children belonging to ST (scheduled tribes)
and SC (scheduled casts) communities get it for free. There are schools for illiterate adults
too, some of them are in the evening. The illiterates are provided with books and notebooks.
In both of the villages that visited, there was a five days festival going on to motivate the
children to go to school and to motivate their parents to send them to school. In SomakkaPet
they were in the end of a drama, where the school children played illiterate people that were
fooled, because they just gave their fingerprint as a signature on documents they haven’t
understood because they can’t read. Unfortunately, I didn’t have the opportunity to take
pictures of the drama. In RamdasGuda the CARPED staff together with some government
workers and the school children were performing some songs, dramas and dances. They call
it “kala jatha”- sort of street play or street theatre. It is in their language and the actors make
it relevant to the local situation, as the script is flexible. Two school girls were singing in
Telugu: “randi, randi, randi, ...” (come, come, come ...[to school]). Other songs in Ramdas
Guda were (translated by Shanti Kumar from Telugu): “please don’t send me to the field,
send me to school. Please buy me pencils and notebooks.” The children looked quite happy
while singing and they were excited and sang loud. They seemed really motivated.
[pics: 06-08]
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I was particularly impressed by the paintings on
the (school) buildings with some illustrations of
very basic things of do’s and don’ts in the daily
life. It gave me a good first impression with
what kind of problems the social workers have
to deal in these areas.
[pic 09]
I was told that out of 12,600 children in
Kowdipally mandal who should go to school
600 don’t go to school. The government and CARPED work together motivating these
children to go to school. There is a team of 10 employees of CARPED exclusively for the
program to bring children to school 365 days a year. The government does this only one
week a year in each village. As the program seems to be successful, a continuation of it
should be suggested.
3.1          My impression about the festival and suggestions for the
The children had to sit to long to stay concentrated all the time – sometimes less is

more – maybe a short game in between, where the children can stand up and move
could help.
It would be nice to have present examples of working people that grew up in villages

like this and that are promoting education as an idol for the children.
Farmers could be rewarded for sending their children to school. The school should be

flexible with absence of children for a few days if the children are needed on the field
and the education doesn’t suffer too much.
I was impressed by the number of children attending the festival and wondering how

the parents of the children were motivated to send their children there.
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First meeting with M. Bharath Bhushan4 (01.02.2005)
CARPED is focused on basic school issues and the issue of community control over natural
resources. Five to six years ago the Lambadas (the main tribe in Kowdipally mandal) haven’t
sent their children to school. Government schools have been built where there haven’t been
schools before. CARPED has put pressure on the government to build schools. Another
problem Bharath Bhushan mentioned is, how the children can be retained in school. The
farmers are wondering also about what use is of education to them. They want their children
to stay in the villages or to come back to the villages. The farmers and their children should
be provided with life skills like social education, vocational training and so on. CARPED
initiates these issues and then the government should go on with the work. The government
is accountable to the villages. Parents should be involved and feel comfortable to talk with
teachers and the people should have the feeling that they own the school.
Bharath Bhushan raised also the questions from current debates: To what level is poverty
responsible for child labour? Is it possible to separate poverty from child labour? Is ignorance
the reason for child labour and not poverty? He doesn’t agree with the current arguments
advocating that poverty is not the reason for child labour. He considers these arguments as
anti-poor and blaming the victim. He stresses the need to look into schooling in the context of
material needs of survival and the functional value of education that is different from the
Brahminical perception of the text (book) for the sake of text. What he asks is “Reading for
what?” and stresses that reading should raise issues of deprivation and empower those who
read to question the structures of oppression and inequality and make education meaningful
in ones search for a livelihood.
Mahita5: Interview with Mr. Ramesh and Mr. Kumar (14
February 2005)
The objectives of the NGO Mahita are the realization of child rights, the empowering of
women and girl children. Mahita is working in the poor regions of the city, which are mainly in
the so-called “old city” or the walled city predominantly inhabited by the Muslims. Around
Secretary of the Executive Committee of CARPED and elder brother of M. Subhash Chandra, the
director of CARPED
Mahita is a Sanskrit term meaning rejuvenation or regeneration.
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80% of the people in the slums of the old city are Muslims. Most people live there. There are
small seasonal changes. Many Muslims are not sending their children to school. Women are
generally suppressed: Mahita is educating girl children to empower them, to bring change in
the second generation. Vocational skills are taught and computer training is provided.
Mahita’s motivational centre is giving quality education. Mahita is providing better teachers
and working together with government schools. It is promoting child friendly schools and
working at the attitude of teachers towards child rights in government schools. In Mahita’s
child clubs different children are brought together who have different problems, to show them
what child rights are and to give them an understanding what problems can be. As Telugu
people’s problems are really different from the Muslims’ problems.
5.1       The Muslim community
One problem in Mahita’s view is the male domination in the Muslim community: Men go out,
exchange their views and knowledge with others and make decisions. Women stay at home
and have no education, no exposure and no decision power. Women and children are
dependant on the man. Mahita is trying to develop slowly the empowerment of women by
enabling them to earn something on their own. They are creating female communities in
which 20 houses are linked through one leader. Awareness is tried to be built about different
perspectives of men, women and children on various issues. Based on the skills the women
want and need Mahita is offering different trainings. Tailoring training is offered for example,
where women can learn about marketing and quality issues. Marketing aspects of products
like bangles are really important because they create good products but don’t get much
money for it from their middle man. The goal is that women can start their own business after
the training.
5.2       Migration
In urban areas there is a financial flow because of existent supply and demand. In rural areas
there is practically no demand, so the priorities of urban and rural areas are different. There
used to be no money system in the villages but an exchange system to a great extent for the
needs of daily lives. With the money that came into the villages the values came down. If
there is a drought now, nothing is there anymore. And all poor households of the village are
leaving to areas where water is or jobs are. So occupation is shifting slowly based on need
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and availability. These migrant people make the cheapest and easiest work. It’s wage
laboured work, sometimes they are just carrying things. Women are housewives, do
domestic work or carry things on their shoulders or head. Male Muslims get auto-rickshaw or
truck drivers or act as street vendors with a pushcart. Telugu people are working more on
construction sites. Reasons for that are different attitudes of the people. Muslims want to
work on their own, to do their own business.
There are 3 types of migration:
permanent: 12 months/ year = wife, husband, elderly children

seasonal: 6 months/ year

temporarily: want of money

Seasonal work is not secure. It breaks up the education of the children of seasonal workers.
Their life is spoiled because they drop out of school in the villages and don’t come into the
system in the city.
5.3         Child labour
Child labour is prohibited in India but the policies are not strong there is no proper enactment
and there are no strong laws. India has a very high child labour rate, many children are
denied from their basic rights. Children are often employed because they work more and
produce a better quality. They usually do contract work.
There are several programs dealing with child rights in Andhra Pradesh (AP). To name a
few: The DPEP6, education festivals and the A P Alliance for Child Rights (APACR). The
APACR is a coalition/ network of organizations comprising members from 23 districts. It’s
working against child abuse and child trafficking and is a forum of different networks. The
primary goal of the AP Alliance for Child Rights is to facilitate the discussion on child rights.
Training needs and financial support are provided and organisations working on child rights
are linked with each other.
One third of migrated children go to school, usually those whose parents are literate. Others
go to work. Mahita is doing a lot of counselling efforts and has a counselling centre for the
District Primary Education Program
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migrated families. They are motivating the parents, bringing awareness about child issues
and holding community meetings. Because of free education in government schools money
is not the reason why parents aren’t sending their children to school. The problems are the
ignorance, laziness and bad attitudes of the parents. Through theatres and dramas
performed by children and for children information is provided about school in motivational
camps. One or two motivational camps per year bring the school to the children because
Muslims don’t want to send their girl children two kilometres away. The theatres are about
the importance of education connected with the local living and knowledge in the day-to-day
life. It doesn’t show the people something new but makes to understand them with the help
of stories from their local area.
According to government laws for every 40-45 students there should be one teacher = Pupil :
Teacher - ratio. But there are always more children in the classes, normally around 80
children. After 4th or 5th class many girls drop out, and after 6th class boys drop out. In 10th
class only half of the children still go to school. There are language problems of children
coming from rural areas because they don’t speak Hindi.
Girls are often brought from rural areas and work on contracts as domestic servants starting
from the age of 6 to 18. They are exploited sexually and accused to steal. Politicians,
policemen and the administration system should protect the children but are actually
employing them as cheap labour. There is no human chain like in the USA that would help
these children to get out of there miserable situation. Another threat girls are facing more and
more is PNDT (pre-natal diagnostic techniques). The gap between the number of males and
females is growing because girls are aborted or severely neglected.
5.4         Mahita’s work flow (with migrating children)
1. Mapping (of influences to migration – why migration):
a. number of all children
b. age
c. gender
d. linkage from where they migrated
e. status of family
2. Making resources available: resource mobilization, sufficiency
3. Programme discussion
a. place
b. who will teach
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4. Training of the motivators – teachers. Whom, why and what to teach
5. Providing infrastructure:
a. room
b. tables, fan...
c. Toilet facility – esp. for girls
d. Drinking water: safe/ potable
6. Providing TLM (teaching learning materials) – personal aids
5.5        Problems in schools
no playground
Teaching: not enough teachers, no specialised staff
Urdu: no Telugu teachers want to go to Urdu school
No filling up after retirement or maternity of teachers
Teachers are ignorant and not concerned about their children: They are only concerned
about bell (time) + bill (money). There is a lack of commitment and dedication among the
Power politics arrest the teachers from achieving the quality goals
The District selection committee (DSC) selects the Teachers. There are 2222 teachers
available per year and 2114 teachers are needed per year. But the budget for schooling
isn’t big enough.
Visit at a home of a member of Asha7 for Education8 (17
February 2005)
ASHA is basically concentrated on child education. Asha for Education based on volunteers.
The organisation has been established in the USA. The head of the organisation came to
India afterwards and now regularly visits Hyderabad. Asha has a network in England and the
USA. There are not enough volunteers in Hyderabad since Asha just exists there for 2 years.
Ten to fifteen people work in their free time for Asha in Hyderabad. The members get
together every fortnight. There is no office and meetings take place at residential homes. All
money goes to the recipients. They act where help is needed, especially in schools. If there
is a shortage of funds and children don’t get proper education, Asha takes up such cases.
Asha is a Hindi word that means hope.
More information about Asha for Education:
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When a project is selected, somebody is responsible for the project. The goal is broadly to
help people/ institutions to make themselves self-sustaining. They motivate rich people and
their companies to give money to contribute for social cause. Anybody is welcome to
participate in their scheme of things: Participation in just one activity is also possible. Asha is
advertising through Internet and friends to get volunteers. There are some regular
contributors and in big events “irregular” volunteers are needed. Each project is monitored
and a progress report has to be submitted. Asha for Education has chapters in Hyderabad,
Chennai and Pune. The main organisation in Varanasi has to recognize the chapters so that
they are registered. They will be observed first for two years and two members of each
Chapter have to participate in the annual meeting in Varanasi. Local funds are monitored by
the members of the chapter itself. They produce sightseeing reports. The coordination within
the chapter happens through Internet and phone calls.
6.1        Asha for Education’s projects
One project of Asha is called NICE. Asha is providing a residential school for orphans from
6th to 12th class and balwadis9 for children from parents, who are both working. In the slums
around Banjara Hills10 live mainly migrated people. Government schools are ill-equipped, so
parents don’t want to send their children there. Asha built a private school for these children
there. First there were voluntary teachers that was problematic as they could not have a fixed
schedule and time table for teaching activity . Now only fulltime teachers are working in the
school. The students can stay in the school from morning till evening. Asha is concerned
about deprived children in Kukatpally, Hyderabad. Children are engaged in stone work
(working with stones) and have lots of health problems. Help camps are organised for them.
Financial help and subsidies are given to them and they get discount from diagnostic
centres. That’s financed trough donations from various people. Asha is slowly improving the
quality of its private school and has a continuous need of finance. Donors for the programme
can sponsor a child and her whole education process with yearly donations. Donations to
handicapped children are used only for them and not for the corpus of the school.
Government schools only employ trained teachers. Government schools are supposed to be
the best schools because they have trained teachers and proper infrastructure, but there is
no monitoring of the services there. The DEO (District Education Officer) should inspect all
government schools and recognized private schools. The government charges for the
a kind of nurseries
wealthy area in Hyderabad
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recognition. From upper primary on schools need recognition to have access to common
exams. Direct interaction with government schools is not possible without permission of the
Visit at the office of the Concern India Foundation11 (17
February 2005)
The Concern India Foundation (CIF) is a non-profit, public charitable trust that supports
development-oriented non-profit organizations working for the disadvantaged since 1991. It
supports development-oriented organizations working at the grassroots level. The CIF is
providing funds and practical support including the provision of communication expertise. Its
focus is on education, health, community development and environment. The aim of the CIF
is to make every disadvantaged individual self-reliant, creating a society of independent
people living with dignity. Concern India Foundation is currently funding 8 projects in
Hyderabad. However, it’s not directly involved in the projects, as it just gives funds to NGOs
and monitors them every quarter.
8     School Education Committee (SEC) Meeting in
Kowdipally (18 February 2005)
8.1        Briefing from M. Subhash Chandra (CARPED)
There is one school education committee (SEC) for each school in Kowdipally mandal. The
chairperson, who has to be a parent, should take part in the meeting held at Kowdipally –the
mandal headquarters on a particular day. The SECs have review meetings once every
fortnight. However, many of these chairpersons won’t attend because they have some other
important and events which are obligatory like attending a wedding of a near and dear or
some other personal work for which they have been waiting for quite some time. A SEC
consists of five persons- the headmaster and four parents of schoolchildren. One member of
10th class with best grades in 9th class also takes part in the meetings, at least two committee
members have to be women and one member should be from a scheduled caste (SC) or
from a scheduled tribe (ST). Members sometimes don’t know that they are members of the
committee. Because somebody nominates or recommends their name and they are often
more information about Concern India Foundation:
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invited to these meetings although they are on the records as members. They have to be
aware of their role and of what they have to do and about the problems and follow the rules.
The money they get for schooling has to be used properly because they should manage it
now, according to the rules. Physically challenged children should be integrated in normal
schools but there are no ramps for these handicapped children to enter the schools.
The SEC should have a strategy and should be aware of the mission of the school. The
purpose of the meeting on this day is to bring the people from the different school
committees together and to discuss the problems the schools are facing. Only Chairmen of
each of the 81 schools in the mandal are invited. The meeting is held in an informal manner
so that people really speak. Subhash Chandra was the moderator in the meeting. He gave a
questionnaire to the chairmen of the SECs and explained what the members are expected to
examine and plan for the betterment of their respective schools.
The day after, a village education committee meeting is planned. These committees
represent all schools in one village and it will be discussed how these people meet the
problems of lower committees (SEC). The volunteers meeting takes place the following week
week. They are irregular staff of the schools who fill gaps. The volunteers have to wait 6-7
months for their salries to be paid by the government. These anganwadi teachers have a
salary of 600 Rs. per month of which Rs 550 comes from UNICEF and Rs 50 comes from the
government. These volunteer anganwadi teachers don’t go to school anymore because
UNICEF has stopped the payments and they would henceforth only get Rs 50. There will
also be a meeting with the government. The government has been too ambitious with its
programmes- SSA12, DPEP, and continuous education programme. The target by 2003 was
that no child should be out of school. But thousands of children are out of school in the
district as in any other district of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The government is
concentrated on enrolment figures but the children aren’t retained because of a lack of
teachers, infrastructure etc. Finally, the meeting of the SEC members has planned for a
public meeting with 100-150 people from all committees and all elected members and
leaders fro the community from varied self help groups. The government, experts on child
education, members of committees, members of parliament, the education minister (if willing)
and the media will be invited to the meeting. The meeting plans to highlight all the issues
confronting the schools and the problems faced by them.
Subhash Chandra questions whether so many (government) programs are needed. He
thinks that it’s better just to have one good program that is effectively implemented. There
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
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are 59 habitations in Kowdipally mandal that don’t have a school within 1 km. There are
plans for school buses but they are not effective.
8.2        The meeting
[pic 10]
Subhash Chandra started the SEC meeting a couple of hours
later than scheduled shortly before noon. First the female
participants discussed about the problems their schools have.
They explained problems of each schools specifically and
what has been done and what else remains to be looked into.
The problems refer to the following:
No water (tank)

The school building is a hut

The water is not safe

There is no kitchen

No toilet for the kids which is a problem

more for girls
Single teacher school, 2 teachers for 97

students, leaks from ceiling.
[pic 11]
Further problems mentioned by the mainly male participants:
A request for a single phase motor has not yet been sentenced.
Toilets were constructed but there is no water.
No proper building, 3 rooms for all children till 5th class (196 children), no
infrastructure, no learning materials, children don’t feel like attending classes.
The teacher is not regularly at ECE13 classes.
Rs 50,000 required for land/ water, too much workload on teachers. Building
Application submitted to MLA14, building not safe.
The school needs a volunteer. Two teachers for 166 students
No nursery
Early Childhood Education
Member of the Legislative Assembly (state parliament)
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Single room, no playground, no furniture, no drinking water, and having 3 acres of
playground but not in use
3 rooms for 5 classes incl. ECE for 194 students. 3 teachers, volunteers, requires 2
more classes, need to upgrade by adding higher classes
Local contribution and problems from the poor parents to cntribute tt he upkeep of the
Fake certificates, corruption/ bribe for jobs, suicides because of no jobs
School building not safe, no water, toilet, kitchen, 2 teachers
The school is in a hut (burst 2 times). 2 teachers stopped attending, as there is no
permanent school building. No drinking water, no anganwadi, no one takes
8 thandas15 without electricity
Drinking water is 1 km away from school, 3 teachers for 161 students
No English teacher for children of higher classes who have English and most of the
children fail in the common examinations
[pics 12-13]
Personal Opinion about the meeting
I didn’t understand what the members said directly as the meeting was in Telugu but I made
some observations: After the lunch, the women sat behind and didn’t say anything if they
were not directly addressed. They should have been asked directly about their opinion.
Almost only people in the front were speaking. If there are so many participants (around 30-
40), the moderator should limit the time of speech of single participants so that every body
gets the time to speak. Although some tend to listen because they may not have something
tribal hamlet
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to share in concrete terms or they are not very vocal. The women need to be encouraged
and enabled to participate as they are coming into such meetings for the first time and it is for
the fist time they are members of such committees and some NGOs are encouraging their
active participation. And some men are very assertive and do not listen to make their speech
short. Holding meetings with large numbers is a real task and needs great skills to see that
participation of all is ensured. Besides there is also caste and other factors that enables or
affects participation of some persons in a meeting which is heterogeneous by caste, income
and gender background of the members.
9      PRA seminar combined with visit in Bhattu Thanda,
Kowdipally mandal (30 March 2005)
The Department of Sociology from Nizam’s College in Hyderabad city had collaboration with
the CARPED for providing rural exposure and facilitate in fieldwork and inputs of PRA. The
Department entered into an agreement for the collaboration. The students of the Nizam’s
college first got a theoretical introduction into the field of PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal).
The seminar was partly in Telugu and partly in English. The students were mostly speaking
in Telugu as a lot of them had some trouble with English because they come from villages.
The sociology department requested CARPED to give the students the opportunity to
understand the PRA methods in action and have rural exposure with PRA work in Kowdipally
mandal. I met the students for the second time (after attending one day of the seminar) in
Bhattu Thanda, a village in Kowdipally mandal. The students liked the interaction with the
people in the community and also the experience of the PRA methods. They got so familiar
and comfortable with them after the ice breaking and interaction tat they started discussing
about different issues of the village life and conditions. The girl students were wearing
Lambada clothes for the first time in their lives to see how they look in the traditional attire.
Some students and villagers got so well that they started dancing with the tribals.
[pics 14-16]
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I’m pretty sure the field visit of the sociology students was a valuable experience for them
and I would strongly suggest to go on with such kind of activities. I observed a huge
difference and a lack of knowledge of the life of each other between city dwellers and
villagers during my stay in Hyderabad.
10 Evening play in Kachan Palli, Kowdipally mandal (30
March 2005)
CARPED employees performed a play with music, singing and dancing to teach villagers
how to be cautious about problems in their daily lives.
[pics 17-18]
Although the
play was in
Telugu, I didn’t
need much
about what
was going on,
as the
were quite
11 Visit of the Zilla Parishad High School (ZPHS) in
Kowdipally                 (31 March & 1 April 2005)
Interview with teachers and the headmaster of the ZPHS
We met T.N. Prabaker, a blind teacher who teaches students with normal eyesight at the
ZPHS. There are blind schools in the major districts of A.P but not in Medak district
(Kowdipally mandal belongs to Medak district). There are two schools for blind children in
Hyderabad- one for boys and one for girls. It wasn’t really clear 16from the answers the other
teachers and the headmaster gave, if there is drinking water at the school and if it is of good
English of the employees of the ZPHS was quite poor
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                   19
quality. There is no groundwater. The borewell of the school has not been working for 15
The school has 658 students (283 girls) and 9 teachers. The number of students increased
by 100 in just one year because of the NGOs encouraging and motivating parents and
children. The T(teacher):S(students)-ratio should be 1:40 (government policy) but is more
like 1:70. The 9th class has 187 members in two sections. Classes 6-10 go to school in the
morning, classes 11-12 after 1 o’clock. 45 minutes outside exercise per day is compulsory
but there is no gym. From 23 April to 20 June is summer vacation. The weeks before the
summer vacation school goes just from 8:00 to 12:30. The headmaster occupies his position
for 2 months. Previously, he was a maths teacher. He was the senior teacher so he overtook
the role of the headmaster. The budget given by the state is Rs 90,000 for 15 people. The
salary depends on seniority, education etc. Students come from villages in a radius of 10-15
km away from school. Around 300 students stay in 3 hostels nearby the high school. There is
one hostel only for economically backward people/ backward classes. One hostel for boys
from ST (scheduled tribes) and one hostel for girls from SC (scheduled castes).
After intermediate (12th class) nearly 50% drop out, many girls marry. It takes around 30
minutes to the nearest universities for graduate and post graduate studies in Medak or
Sangareddy- the district head quarters where the District Collector and magistrate and all
the government offices are located. Options for studying include sciences, arts, maths. Very
few in Kowdipally mandal reach up to that level as many cannot afford to invest time in
studies, as they are very poor and need to earn their bread and also support their parents
Visit to 9th class English lesson (1 April 2005)
Teacher: B. Sampath Kumar, time: 10:00-10:45
The 9th class has 161 students in 2 sections but all of them or more than 100 were together
in this session. Girls and boys were sitting on different benches. The teacher taught English
in Telugu as the ZPHS is a Telugu medium school. I could experience the consequences of
these English classes with far too many students in a room. English taught in local language
by a teacher who most probably doesn’t really speak proper English with anybody beyond
the classroom or just after the lesson. When I asked some of the students simple questions
like: “Do you like to go to school?” They didn’t understand the question and answered things
like: “I go to 9th class.”
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[pics 19-20]
12 Second meeting with M. Bharath Bhushan (3 April 2005)
A child has to be seen in relation with its family. Only girls (migrants) are working on
cottonseed farms. Why are there no children working from rich people? Why are poor
parents sending their children to work? Working children away from home are more
vulnerable for (sexual) abuse. It’s not possible to find meaningful, effective solutions, if the
facts are ignored. There are also educationally deprived children that are not in child labour
because there parents can’t afford to send them to school or they don’t have access to a
school. One medicine for all the problems is wrong. Minimum wages, basic freedom and
rights and employment guaranties are needed.
The government has an isolated approach in which they are just building infrastructure from
which contractors and politicians profit. Households with educationally deprived children are
more likely in rural areas, working in agriculture, dalits, ST and SC. The constitutional
amendments on child education are toothless. Very few schools are now in the old city
(Muslim part of the city). Although the number of students is increasing the schools are
getting less. Since 1951 the population is increasing but the number of schools is
13 Visits of Ken World High School – (4 & 6 April 2005)
Mr. Taher Aziz owns the school and acts as a headmaster of the school. The area around
the school is completely a slum area. Mr. Aziz has tried to educate the parents and the
children of third class people starting from 1986. Around 60% of the students in his school
are Muslims, 40% are Hindus. The teachers are mostly Christian and it’s an English medium
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                                21
school. He runs 3 English medium schools in the Borabanda area. Some students who have
completed these schools are working abroad. The teachers (must) have a very good
knowledge of English. The teachers, principals and parents are working for the children. The
schools are financed by fees. There is monthly one meeting for the parents in which they are
explained on how to deal with the children. The children start to go to the nursery class at the
Ken World High School from the age of 2 1⁄2 years onwards. Mr. Aziz is running 4 schools
and they are all English medium schools from nursery to 10th class.
Age                                    Grade
21⁄2                                     Nursery
31⁄2                                     Lower kindergarten (LKG)
41⁄2                                     Upper kindergarten (UKG)
1st class (primary school) (all subjects, all languages)
2nd class (6 subjects, individually writing)
...                                      ...
6th class (high school)
10 1⁄2
...                                      ...
10th class
14 1⁄2
School fees:
Nursery and kindergarten:           100 Rs./month
st  th
Primary school (1 -6 class):150 Rs./month
High school (7th-10th class): 200 Rs./month
In June and December the parents have to pay double the usual fees.
Process of selection of the teachers:
A three days interview with the headmaster consisting of:
1st day- oral test
2nd day- written test
3rd day- test lesson – observing the way of teaching
The school has 18 teachers and 700 hundred students (girls: boys = 350:350)17 A class
consists of 30 students in the primary section and of 20-25 students in high school.18 Most of
In each class I visited, I had the impression that there were more boys then girls, so I don’t really
believe Mr. Aziz that the ratio of girls: boys is 350:350.
At least in four out of five lessons I visited, there were more than 50 students in one class.
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                    22
the students walk to school and some of them come by bus. The school is running from
09:00-15:30 with a lunch break from 12:30 to 13:30 in between and a 15 minutes break at
11:00. The children bring the lunch from home. The school provides drinking water (filtered
water). There are special classes for weaker students. The government recognized this
The teachers have (5-) 6 periods of teaching and one period for correction, preparing
reports..., totally 7 periods per day. Only every 2nd Saturday is a holiday. The teacher
decides where the students sit. They always sit at the same place, which depends on the
students’ height and of their strength (in the middle are the better students and besides them
the weaker ones). Students have also homework but not too much for each subject because
they have 6 subjects. There are exams every 3 months, half-year exams and annual exams.
The teachers are correcting the exams but not preparing them. After each of these exams
the teachers talk with the parents once in every 3 months about the results and the problem
poor attendance ,if any, of the students. Students who fail in 1-2 subjects will have re-exams
after 15-20 days of preparation. They have grading from A to E based on the performance or
marks. Marks: A + B: passed – C + D: promoted – E: detained.
13.1       Interview of Mr. Aziz
1. Quality control of teachers?
The teachers are under observance for one month before they are employed for a longer
term. They are removed at the end of the year if they do a bad job.
2. Further education of teachers?
Further education is appreciated but it’s the teacher’s own decision. Better educated
teachers get higher salaries. So there is reward for their higher education but that’s
something they have to acquire at their cost.
3. Salary range?
Criteria for difference in salaries is based on qualification and experience. Salaries range
from Rs 1,200 to Rs 5,000 per month and is not depending on the teachers gender.
4. What is the policy towards pregnant women and mothers?
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Pregnant women won’t be appointed. In case of a marriage questions will be asked about
future planning of female teachers before marriage. If a mother can handle it with her
children, she can go on teaching.
5. Results of students?
Usually 90% of students pass and 10% fail.
6. How does the school deal with different mother tongues of the students?
60-70% of the students are Muslims and therefore have Urdu as their mother tongue. In the
first years the teacher explains first in English and then in Urdu. Hindus also understand
7. How is the contact with the parents?
The headmaster is in personal contact with the parents. They come when problems occur.
8. Are classes always held in the same room?
9. How much has to be spent on books?
Rs 150 to Rs 400 including notebooks
10. Punishments for misbehaviour of students?
Teachers come to the administration and ask there for action.
11. How many male and female teachers are there in the school and for what subjects?
There are 2 men and 11 women19 because women are more patient and therefore more
often employed. There are six subjects and one free subject- Maths, Telugu, Hindi, English,
science and social studies. It depends upon the teacher what they teach. Until the 5th class
the teachers have to prepare the syllabus and the administration checks it. From 6th class
onwards the government provides the syllabus. Young teachers are preferred because they
are open minded, willing to work hard for growth in career, energetic and can move fast.
2+11= 18? – Or the rest non teaching staff who look after the maintenance of the school facilities
including watchman etc. Mr. Aziz mentioned before that there are 18 teachers and 700 students in his
school. The number of just 13 teachers would explain the fact that there were more than 50 students
several classes.
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13.2       Observations of lessons
5th class English lesson             Teacher: Ms. Tahseen
06.04.2005, 11:45
The teacher speaks only in English and tells the students- “no collective answers”. Girls and
boys sit separated. The children stand up when they want to say something but don’t always
wait until the teacher gives them the permission. So sometimes more than one is speaking.
1st class maths lesson
06.04.2005, 12:30                                                     Teacher: Ms. Monica
The students lift their hands and the teacher chooses who can give the answer. The students
from the back and from the front come to the blackboard but most of the actively participating
children sit in the front. I would describe the teaching style as- frontal teaching with active
participation of the students. The teacher couldn’t remember all the names of the students.
Around 70 students were in the room and I guess more than 40 of them were boys. The size
of the room was approx. 3.5 x 6 meters
4th class social studies lesson
06.04.2005, 12:50                                                     Teacher: Ms. Zaibunissa
Students total: 57, present: 55
Topic: lesson 22: Things that make us richer
18 recognised languages
National language: Hindi
Official language: English (used in offices)
Our costumes:...
It was interesting to see what kinds of things are taught in schools. I got the impression that
the students learn a lot about India and it’s culture but not much about the rest of the world.
3rd class science lesson
06.04.2005, 13:15                                             Teacher: Ms. Asma
Students total: 52, present: 52
Topic: A good house and its clean surroundings
A house protects us from heat, cold, rain and thieves.
Functions of rooms:
Drawing (?) room: meeting visitors
Dining room: eat
Bedroom: sleeping, resting
Kitchen room: cooking
Store room: keeping, storing
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                   25
Garbage attracts flies. They cause diseases like malaria, cholera, typhoid...
This lesson was even more interesting as it didn’t come to my mind that students could be
taught in school what to do in what room, how to keep the house clean and so on. In my view
it seems pretty extreme what kind of guidelines to a good living culture the Indian
government teaches the students. I got in general the impression and this was supported by
an article that I read in an Indian newspaper (most probably “The Hindu”), that the students
are just taught one certain perspective on things even if there are many other perspectives.
Students are not enough taught to check the validity of the information they get.
2nd class English lesson
06.04.2005, 13:25                                           Teacher: Ms. Shaheen
Students total: 57, present: 56
The principal’s wife takes a look of how the classes were run. She enquires what is taught
and talks with the teacher during the lesson to give advices on how to teach. The teacher
seems a bit nervous because the principal’s wife is standing there and observing the lesson.
The students give collective answers. The children are sitting very near to each other on
benches. They don’t have chairs or even tables.
13.3      Interviews with teachers
Interview with Ms. Tahseen:
Age: 24
Teacher at this school for 4 years.
Teaches 4th-6th class in English and science.
She made her Bachelor of Commerce with 20 and started to teach during her studies.
Her salary is Rs 1500 /month with 100 Rs. increase per year of experience and Rs
1200 as her starting salary.
She had no training how to teach and just goes with the books.
She is an unmarried Muslim who likes her job.
Interview with Mr. Suresh
Age: 26
He teaches 5th-10th class in maths for 3 years.
He made his Master of Sciences in mathematics and a Bachelor of Education.
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                      26
He taught in Kovels High School in Sanathnagar, Hyderabad for 2 years but left that
job because of a callous management.
His salary is Rs 3500 /month
He is an unmarried Hindu.
Interview with Ms. Zaibunissa
Age: 28
She is teaching 1st -9th class in social sciences: geography, economics, civics, history
She started 1995 teaching social sciences for 1st-10th class in Thomas Public School
for a salary of Rs 1000/ month
Master in Economics
Salary is Rs 1800/month
She is an unmarried Muslim.
She has done one month of training for teaching 2nd-6th class students in slum areas
at Princess Esim Women’s Educational Centre in the old city.
14 MMCC (Master Minds Children’s Career) Talent High
School (THS) (15 April 2005)
Already tuition from 2001-2003 but school started in 2003. It started with 10 students and
now there are 500 students, 25 teachers and 5 other employees. It’s running classes from
nursery up to 10th class. As other schools closed, the principal of the school wanted to merge
schools. The school has 15 class rooms and there are 30 to 40 students per class. It’s a
private English medium school recognized by the AP government. It has a special
permission as school without playground (land costs are Rs 10,000 per sq yard). The owner
and principal invested Rs 50 lakh in the school since the beginning. Just a few schools in
Hyderabad have a playground. There are 32 schools in Rahmathnagar and none of them
has a playground. The principal has to initially invest considerable money in the school. He
spent around double the amount he got.
School fees (set by comparing fee structures of other schools):
Nursery and kindergarten:       175 Rs./month
st th
Primary school (1 -6 class):200 Rs./month
High school (7th-9th class):    300 Rs./month
10 class:                       500 Rs./month
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The principal can’t afford to give free education and scholarships from outside are needed for
that purpose. There is a project to give further school books. The school is the latest one in
Rahmathnagar and has the best education quality. Some students come from High-tech city
5-6 km away. There is one school bus which charges 1 Re. per way or 2 Rs. per day. There
are 60% boys and 40% girls in the school. The school goes from 09:30-15:30 and then there
are tuitions. In summer the timings are: 07:45-12:30 because the AP government doesn’t
allow school in the afternoon because of the heat. Only 4 of the teachers at the school are
older than 30 to 40. There is an ABC categorisation in each class: A= top students, B=
normal students, C= weaker students (get special courses). 20 teachers are female and 5
male. Women are chosen because they have more patience and caring attitude and also
affectionate. Men just teach the higher classes like 9th and 10th class. Teachers are selected
after a personal interview and a demonstration class. The salary ranges from Rs 2500-5000
and depends on which classes are taught, experience, degree and the time on the campus.
One class has the same room for the whole day.
14.1       Interviews with teachers (around 20 teachers in the room
during the interview)
1. Mr. G. Bheadrah
Age: 65
He used to work for the tourism department and retired.
He is working since one year without salary (social service).
He is looking after discipline, respect, behaviour and is dedicated to the school.
2. Ms. Neha
Age: 21
She has a Bachelor in political science, public administration and Hindi literature.
She teaches lower classes, is married and will go on teaching.
One year at this school and one year of experience at the Elar Kishore School. She
moved to this school because there were 60 students in a class at the other school.
Salary: 1400 Rs. (1200 Rs. at Elar Kishore)
3. Ms. Renjithe
Age: 20
She has a Bachelor of Commerce.
She teaches LKG at this school for one year and taught at Elar Kishore school.
The interviewed teachers have salaries ranging from 1000-2500 Rs.
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                    28
She is married and will go on teaching for 2-3 years.
Salary: 1300 Rs. (1200 Rs. at Elar Kishore)
4. Ms. Ravya
Age: 18
She studied until intermediate level.
She is teaching Hindi, science and social sciences for one year up to 3rd class.
She is married and will continue teaching.
Salary: 1000 Rs.
5. Mr. K V Raghuram
Age: 40                oldest teacher
He has a Bachelor in engineering.
He teaches maths from 3rd to 10th class.
He has 10 years of experience in different schools.
Salary: 2500 Rs. (nearly this salary at former jobs)
6. Mr. Ganesh
Age: 22
Bachelor in education.
He is teaching social sciences and English from 3rd to 5th class since 2003 and will go
on teaching until he gets a government job.
He’s unmarried.
Salary: 1500 Rs.
7. Mr. Satyanarayana
Age: 25
Ph.D. in Telugu.
He is teaching Telugu here for one year from 6th to 8th class and will go on teaching in
He is married.
Salary: 1500 Rs.
8. Ms. Hymathehveatha
Age: 40
She has a Bachelor degree.
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                      29
She was teaching in a Amravathi school for 10 years but left because of [not further
explained] problems.
She is teaching only nursery class.
She is married and mother of a 20 year old son and a 16 year old girl.
Salary: 1600 Rs. (in the Amravathi school she got 2500 Rs.)
9. Plenum:
Competition between schools improves quality of education. Punishments don’t come
directly from teachers. The teachers talk to the parents because of the grades.
15 Lecture on Child Deprivation in AP – Speaker: M.
Venkata Narayana (12 April 2005)
Not all children out of school are working. What factors influence child labour/ out of school
children? Children don’t go to school because they have health problems. Lack of perception
of parents that children should be sent to school with 5 years. Out of school children are here
considered as educationally deprived children and all such children cannot be considered as
child labour. Education for children is an essential human right. Childhood is the best time to
provide education (economically spoken). There is a rising demand for education/ human
The lowest income households have the highest number of out of school children. In rural
areas especially in agricultural households children are needed to work for their family
because they can’t afford employees from outside (from the working market). Other
households that need money send their children somewhere to work. Parents are not willing/
cannot afford the costs of “free” primary education- notebooks, transportation, etc. Cost of
schooling influences if children are sent to school by their parents or not.
Role of the households
If parents see the importance of school, they send their children to school even when they
are poor. There is no social stigma yet for child work. The norm of child schooling is
emerging but takes time. Awareness has to be brought about the illness of child labour and
the advantages of schooling. Protestantism said, that each person should be able to read the
bible so child education became a norm with Protestants. Missionaries in Kerala went to
backward communities in the 19th century and have set some incentives to send the children
ceasar_CRC_in_AP[1] - mbb                                                                     30
to school. The perception of the value of work and of education are the most crucial
factors. Actions are taken (by the parents) when they are aware of costs and benefits-
Information should be brought to the parents. After the information, the question of finance
arises. Education means investment in children (economic value + social value of education).
Role of the state
The state should provide schools/ facilities. Providing education by making it compulsory is
not sufficient. Facilities are not satisfactory, not providing enough human as well as financial
Parents have a perception of the quality of a school. Children drop out of school when
parents think the quality of education is not good enough. Teachers are going against the
education principle, children are afraid of the teacher. If the teachers don’t get the money
from the government for some things, they ask the children (parents) to pay for what is
offered. In Kerala, there are socially motivated teachers who collected absent teachers from
their homes.
The available flow of information influences awareness. Information flow depends on social
structure of groups. Dominant social people (castes) hinder backward castes to get informed,
don’t want them to be informed. Schools have to be provided, role models showed and the
quality in school maintained. You have to create employment by yourself out of education
and not get educated to get a government job. That orientation towards government jobs was
brought to India by the British because they needed educated administrative workers.
Comments from a participant:
The teacher should keep the children in the school and look that the children don’t drop out
of school. There is gender, religion and caste discrimination in school. There is a lack of
opportunities and not lack of perception. Role models are missing in communities and
families. Children are educated and still will be unemployed, that causes a motivation
problem, as people start to doubt the sense of sending their children to school.
Who is educationally deprived?
By location: rural areas        Most important factor
By caste: S.T. children the most, then S.C., OBC (other backward casts) > SC
By gender: girls
By occupation groups: agricultural households/ labour
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Lowest income households
History of education in AP
In Telangana the Nizams were ruling and education wasn’t so important. The British
government in Andhra paid more attention to education. Or because the people were
capable of sending their children because of the prosperity owing to canal irrigation.
Telangana does not have surface irrigation through large dams even today. It has drought
regularly although there are rivers in this region. Since independence until the 80’s
Telangana was backward. In the last years the agriculture flowered in (some) Telangana
districts. Most government expenditures have been for irrigation so that not enough
expenditure has been left for education.
Are children going to residential bridge schools (RBC) educationally deprived? No, but there
is a lack of quality in some schools. Children teach children in bridged classes (child labour).
Teachers keep children enrolled even if they are not attending school, dropping out of
school. Parents used to invest in land when they have had surplus money. Parents expected
more benefits out of land and letting the children work on this land. Now it’s changing-
Parents sell land to finance the education. Poor children come to school because it is free of
cost and food is free.
16 School visits in Kowdipally mandal                                 (20 April 2005)
16.1       Visit to girls hostel in Kowdipally (documenting problems)
16.1.1          ST girls hostel
The classroom as well as living room of the ST girls school. The girls sleep in the
“multifunctional” living room/ classroom.
[pic 21]
There are 150 students, 4 rooms, 4 teachers (4th
teacher on maternity leave) and the school has
1st to 5th class. There are no toilets and the
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school is in a rented building. The contract teachers (not permanent), get only 2000 Rs21
salary, don’t get benefits from the government and no retention after retirement. They get
funds from the tribal welfare department.
The kitchen and the outdoor “bathroom”:
[pics 22-23]
2nd Girls hostel
This school has also an outdoor bathroom [pic 24]
The air stinks because there is gully nearby [pic 25]
155 students up to 10th class stay in the hostel in 7 rooms[pic 26]
The water storage tank is not empty anymore, so the hostel has sufficient water and there
used to be no proper toilets but now they seem to be ok.
Most of the teachers at Ken World High School and MMCC Talent High School get less than 2000
Rs. salary.
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16.2     Mohammad Nagar Gate thanda
Primary school without compound wall, latrines and bathrooms. [pic 27]
16.3     Kothacheruvu thanda
Primary school (1st to 5th class standard school).
There is no compound wall, no latrines and no
bathrooms, they have only one voluntary teacher
and CARPED provides a balwadi centre. [pic: 28]
16.4     Balmavath thanda
Primary school with single room, no compound wall, no latrines and bathrooms, only one
teacher and no kitchen room [pics 29-30]
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16.5       Samta thanda
Primary school with only three rooms, no
compound wall, no latrines, no bathrooms, only one
teacher and no kitchen room. [pic 31]
16.6       Silampally
Primary school: latrine and bathroom are not in use.
No compound wall, no kitchen room, only two
teachers. [Pic 32]
16.7       Faizabad M.P.V.P.S.
Problems include no drinking water, no bathrooms, no
latrines, no compound wall etc. The main problem is
the graveyard next to the school (students get a day off
when there is a funeral). Enough classrooms (10), 1st      to
8th class, 6 teachers- all graduates, 315 students. [pics:
16.8       Korra thanda
Primary school: no building, no other facilities,
only one teacher, totally 42 children [pic 36]
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16.9     Sheri thanda
Primary school: building is cracked, 54 students and 2 teachers, no compound wall, latrines,
bathroom, kitchen room and no other facilities. [pic:37]
16.10 Bathukamma Gadda thanda
Primary school: no permanent building [pic: 38]
B. Venkatesh, CARPED organizer in Kowdipally, guided the visits to the schools outside
Kowdipally. [pic 39]
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17 Visit to Kowdipally with Mr. Vidyasagar (21 April 2005)
Kothacheruvu thanda
Provision of midday meal (lunch): [pic 40]
Primary education in a balwadi school with
Sarita, a teacher from CARPED. There is no
aganwadi and no early child education. Sarita
teaching: [pic 41]
Sarita teaches Telugu to the 1st class: [pic 42]
18 Meeting with HCHW (Hyderabad Council of Human
Welfare) (18 August 2005)
18.1      Interview with Mr. Mohd Afsar Ahmed: Programme officer
HCHW is an NGO that was founded in 1990. They are doing social work and Mr. Mohd has a
Master of social work. HCHW’s fields of work are the rehabilitation of street children, child
labour, women, beggars and researching. They made a survey about begging in Hyderabad
in cooperation with the AP government. It took 15-20 days to get the numbers of beggars.
There are totally 10,466 beggars in Hyderabad who were questioned which means an
estimated coverage of 80-90% of the actual number of beggars. Most of them are migrants
and 70% of them come from outside. Except very few of them, all are Indians and 55% are
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men. The totally generated income of the beggars is Rs 15 crore./ year. The survey revealed
that 78.6% of the beggars are Hindus, 13.9% Muslims and 4.5% Christians.
Most important/ best places for begging are:
1. temple places
Reason: security, nobody is harming the beggars there. Especially old people, women and
children are begging there. At the Sai Baba temple there are 100 beggars on Thursdays.
2. traffic islands/ crossroads
70% of the child beggars are working there. HCSW is especially engaged in the rehabilitation
of these children because they work at a risky place. There are children homes for them with
a capacity of 350 for boys (70% of child beggars are boys) and 150 for girls.
15% of the children begging are drop-outs, 80-85% have never been to school. Old beggars
earn more than children. Children painted like Gandhi earn more money. Physically
handicapped children are hired from families as they get more money. 22% of the beggars
are physically challenged people. Men earn more money because they go to any place. 90%
of women begging with children (babies) hire them from families, as women earn more with
children. Few of the beggars are orphans and some of them are claimed by some people as
theirs because they can earn money with them. There are strong begging territories and
more beggars are in the old city. New beggars have to pay commission to the older ones.
Migrants usually come together in a group of 4-5 families and as they are so numerous, they
don’t have to pay commission. A lot of beggars work part time just 4 hours in the morning or
2 hours in the evening. There are few seasonal beggars.
People beg for their livelihood. Members of one community have been professional beggars
for 100-200 years. For 40% of the beggars, begging is their profession. The government is
going to ban begging in the next 6 months. There have been laws forbidding begging for a
long time but they haven’t been enforced. 1977 a beggary prevention act was introduced but
has not been implemented so far. The strategy is to try to get the people away from begging
with rehabilitation programs for 6 months and if they are still reluctant, they will be sued and
sent to prison.
18.1.1          Rehabilitation of child beggars
The project was started in August. There are 3 teams- each one with 1 social worker, 2
assistants, 1 police officer and 1 government person and a 4-wheeler. The children are
running away when the teams come. Initially it was difficult to get the children away from the
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street. They got to know the cars used by the teams and were throwing stones at them. So
they needed a police officer to accompany them for security reasons. They are operating
each day in different areas and bring the children to government homes. The children can’t
run away from the children homes. A social worker from HCSW is counselling them. There is
a school, a vocational school and a medical centre inside the children home. The children
can attend classes up to 10th grade in there and everything is paid by the government.
18.2       Interview with V. Joe Varma: Research & Documentation
Street children/ child labour:
Rights Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Children (RRRC) – main program of HCHW
3 levels:
1. Working with children directly on the streets through
contact points: street educators for migrating children inside and outside the railway
drop in centers: for children habituated on street life, they just want to live there. Open
daily from 09:00-19:00. Children can do their laundry, bedding, sleep, TV, games but no
There are food centres from the government of AP (Hyderabad district administration), where
the children can get food.
2. Working with the children towards their development through
Child Development Centres (CDC):
There are 2 CDCs: CDC Hyderabad and CDC Secunderabad. The children will be kept
under supervision there for around 6 months during which case files are prepared for each
child. Drop-outs are motivated mainstreaming back to formal education system and referred
to the 2nd home.
2nd home:
Children get a second chance for perceiving education. It’s up to the children to which
medium schools they want to go.
3. Reintegrating children back to the society through
vocational training
job placements
self-employment opportunities
to levels in all levels:
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1. towards ensuring basic rights:
1) free food, clothing, shelter, protection
2) health care: health camps - education in organized awareness programs
on the issues concerning children
3) social development: picnics, outings, meetings with the police, interactions
with the school children, teachers – so that the stigma which is attached to
them will be removed
2. means of rehabilitation (at all 5 levels: drop in center, contact point, CDC Hyd.,
CDC Sec., 2nd home)
repatriation: sending children back to the family – immediately done if child
wants to
vocational training: what child wants to do – various skills
job placement
own business: provide support, mentoring services
There are 150 kids in all centres together. 50 kids are in 2nd home from UKG to post
graduation. HCHW is generally looking after children (below 18) on streets and in other
difficult circumstances.
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19 Conclusion and Outlook
Child rights and child education are very important topics in Andhra Pradesh and in India, in
general because the children are the future of the country and the situation of many children
is far from satisfactory. There are not enough schools. Infrastructure is very poor, and poorly
trained teachers. Child labour persists. The fast growth of the Indian population hasn’t made
it easier to solve the problems children are facing either. It can’t be expected that the
situation changes from one day to the other but it needs efforts not just from the government
but also from the families, the parents of the children.
Like in other aspects of society the gap between privileged children with access to good
quality education and poor children without access to education is persisting or even
widening. Everybody who can afford it sends their children to private schools because the
government schools can’t provide a sound education. Instead of putting pressure on the
government to improve its schools, people don’t send their children there anymore and
people without money and power are left alone.
Certainly the government should enforce laws which guarantee free education and which
protects children especially from hazardous work. But the government is just a part of the
society as a whole and if most people don’t care much about children of others out of school
and working, there won’t be changes. I have sometimes felt that people also have
disproportionate expectations about schools. The school building hasn’t to be better than
other buildings surrounding it and I don’t really see, why all those schools in Kowdipally
mandal need a compound wall and that schools for primary school students has to be within
only one kilometre of their habitations. It seems a bit that some people have a list on which is
written what a good school needs and if anything is missing, they start to complain about it,
instead of looking for alternative solutions of problems. Many things still won’t be like people
want them to be in the next years but with the right attitude something good can be made out
of sub optimal circumstances. The challenges are many and those engaged in addressing
these issues are very few.

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